LNG Fundamentals – Technologies and Production


Training objectives

  • To review the structure of an LNG chain and the world map of LNG plants
  • To assess how new energy sources (such as unconventional gas) and new LNG players are affecting the LNG business
  • To understand main LNG physical properties and specificities
  • To apply knowledge of LNG simulation
  • To grasp main liquefaction processes’ operating principles, conditions and constraints
  • To gain an overview of the technology of equipment used in the LNG industry
  • To apply knowledge of LNG gas pretreatment, drying, and refrigeration
  • To understand about LNG storage, shipping, and terminals, sizing basis, and small scale tanks
  • To understand types of LNG carriers, marine management issues, and LNG transfer
  • To understand main equipment using in LNG plant
  • To overview LNG vs CNG making the right decision for your fleet

Training outlines

    • What is LNG, why it is produced, and what is the current status of the industry
    • The LNG Chain - Order of magnitude and trends - Location of main plants worldwide
    • Base load LNG plants - Peak shaving LNG plants - Small LNG plants for LNG fueled vehicles
    • Receiving terminals - Regasification techniques - Satellite regasification techniques
    • Some technical fundamentals of gas processing, such as molecular weight, heating value, Wobbe Index, vapor pressure, multi-component mixtures, thermodynamics.
    • Physical properties: Liquid-Vapor equilibrium, density, ratio of vapor methane / LNG, heat of vaporization, heat of combustion...
    • Safety aspects: Flash Point, Fire Point, Auto-ignition Point, Minimum Spark Energy, Flammability Limits, Deflagration, LNG Vaporization, Rapid Phase Transition (RPT), Radiation levels, Stratification / Roll-over, Sloshing, LNG clouds ignition, Asphyxiation risks, Cryogenic liquids jets, Piping behavior
      • Basic scheme
      • Composition
      • Flowrate
      • Pressure, Temperature
      • En flash
      • Technologies used in the production of LNG for base-load and small scale production, issues relating to technology selection, and operation
      • Main equipment used in the production of LNG: heat exchangers, compressors and drivers used for LNG, pumps, and turbo expanders
      • Feed pretreatment: sweetening, dehydration, LNG extraction, Hg and aromatics removal
      • Different liquefaction processes: Pure Component Refrigerants, Pure component(s) and Mixed Refrigerant(s), Mixed Refrigerants
        • LNG importing, regasification of LNG and distribution to consumers, basis for sizing, technology selection, and energy integration
        • LNG tanks: Single or Double or Full Containment (self-standing, membrane) - Hazards
        • Jetty head, Jetty trestle, harbor
        • LNG Carriers: common features, technology, cargo operations, safety systems
        • CNG and LNG comparisons

          • Fueling considerations
          • Application considerations

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